In the 1950s mento and sound systems
became inseparable. Mento was first recorded in the 1950s thanks to the efforts of Baba Stanley Motta and his dance band who
noted the similarities between Jamaican mento and the Trinidadian calypso, which was currently finding international audiences.
While mento never found a large international audience as calypso it later became the base rhythm of ska, rocky steady and
reggae even today. However, some of these recordings of mento was recorded by such mento artists as Count Lasher, Lord Composer
and George Moxey, who has become respected legends of Jamaican music. Though it has largely been supplanted by successions
of Reggae, Dub and dance hall music.
Mento music is still going strong and is being
made by classicist performers such as the Jolly Boys. By the middle 50s, Jamaica had transitioned from a rural society into
an urban one. The new city dwellers in Kingston and Richmond, for example, were exposed to Americanised R&B, doo wop and
rock 'n' roll. Parties gathered around mobile discotethecque type sound systems, which played American hits. One of the very
first these mobile discotethecque was Tom The Great Sebastian, The V-Rocket Some of the major figures of the Jamaican music
scene came to the fore in association with the mobile discotethecque sound systems during this period. Then other sounds like
Duke Reid The Trojan and Coxsone Downbeat follow suite.
The likes of Duke Reid and Sir Coxsone
was not yet on the discotethecque music scene until middle 50's. In 1958, the first local R&B bands was formed by Joe
Higgs and Roy Wilson) known as Higgs & Wilson who began recording for the conjugal audiences of Jamaica. By the early
1960's, a idiosyncratic music sound had sprung up based around the mento and R & B with a touch of Jazz thrown in
which became known as ska. The best-known of the original ska bands were The Skatalites band, whose career spanned decades
and into numerous styles of popular Jamaican music. At first primarily instrumental, Ska's rhythms generally didn't lend too
well to vocal styling lyrics, though some popular artists such as The Maytals and The Wailers.
Rude boys were anything from fashionable poseurs
to hard-edged, violent and misogynist thugs with nothing to lose in Jamaica's post independence depressed economy. Rude boys
brought incongruity to the ska scene and scorn from the island's almost entirely white middle and upper class. The rude boys
also garnered attention from politicians, who promised protection, gifts of weapons or other incentives to harness their political
support. From then on the Ska developed into Rock Steady a soulful type of music with heavy guitar bass line. The Rocky
Steady though Jamaica's best music; the reggae, dancehall music and dub took over and create a rage in dancehall as it became
a favourite with ravers and the sound DJ's.
Success Of Bob Marley
& The Wailers
In the late 1960s, producers such as Lee
Perry and King Tubby began stripping the vocals away from tracks recorded for sound system parties. With the bare beats playing,
DJs began toasting, or delivering humorous and often obscene jabs at fellow DJs and local celebrities. Over time, toasting
became a more and more a complex activity, and was a very big a draw around the dance circuits. But in the early 1970s,
the DJs became more of an essential part of Jamaican music culture. One DJ in particular; DJ Kool Herc took the Dee-jaying
practice of toasting to New York, where it quickly took up roots into the American environment and germinated into rap music
as we know it today.
The 1970s, saw Rock Steady evolved into reggae
music. Reggae quickly became one of the most popular forms of music in the world, due to a large part to the immense international
success of Bob Marley & the Wailers. Bob Marley himself was viewed by some as a messianic figure, particularly throughout
the Caribbean, Africa, among the black Americans and the native Australian aborigines. His lyrics on love, redemption
song and natural beauty captivated the audiences. Bob Marley gained headlines for negotiating truces between rival gangs
later between two violently warring Jamaican political parties. Reggae music was intricately tied to the expansion of Rastafarian
religion with its principles of pacifism and pan-Africanisms.
Vocal Team Of Chaka
Demus & Shabba Ranks
During the 1980s, the most popular musical styles
in Jamaica were dancehall and ragga. 'Dancehall' is essentially reggae music with a basic rock and drum beat integrated
with pop lyrics rather than the former political and spiritual lyrics which was popular in the 1970s. Ragga is characterized
by the use of computerised beats and sequenced melodic tracks in reggae songs. Ragga is usually said to have been invented
with "Under Mi Sleng Teng" rhythm by Wayne Smith. Ragga went on to barely edge out dancehall as the dominant form of Jamaican
music in the 1980s. DJ and vocalist team Chaka Demus and Shabba Ranks proved themselves more long-lasting than the competition,
helped to inspire an updated version of the rude boys.
This new culture of rude boy sentiment became
known as raggamuffin. Dancehall was sometimes violent in lyrical content, and several rival performers made headlines with
their feuds across Jamaica, most notably Beanie Man vs. Bounty Killer. Dancehall emerged from pioneering recordings in the
late 1970s by Barrington Levy with Roots Radics backing and Junjo Lawes as the producer. The Roots Radics were the pre-eminent
backing band for dancehall style. Yellowman, Ini Kamoze, Charlie Chaplin and General Echo helped popularise the style along
with producer and singer Sugar Minott. The 1980s saw a rise in reggae music from outside of Jamaica. The UK had long been
a hotbed of Jamaican culture in exiles.
In The Beginning Were
amaican music has struck a remarkable impact
on the global sphere. Jamaica is a small West Indian Island in the Caribbean. Her music has created a dent in the music industries
of the world that has become an immensely popular music. Reggae Dancehall and dub wise rhythms in particular has a made
Jamaica one of the most important musical centres of the world. The music from Jamaica has converted the music industries
throughout the world to copy and create new musical beats that has the has the influence of the Caribbean flavour added within
the music. But let us turn our sights to the early history of Jamaica. The local inhabitants of Jamaica were the Arawaks
Indians, most died due to diseases brought to the island by the Spaniards.
But then Jamaica was colonised by the Spaniards
first and then by the British after the Treaty of Madrid in 1670. Many of the slaves that had been brought to the island by
the Spaniards were ordered to resist the conquering troops of Great Britain while their masters fled. These people formed
their own self-governing constituencies in the rural periphery of Jamaica who became known as the Maroons. These villages
and people became inaccessible from the rest of the island known as Maroon towns. Eventually these small isolated areas developed
into birthplace of Rastafarianism, a religion that spread throughout the island. British plantations soon covered the island
until 1838 when slavery was abolished.
The Maroon Nation Has
It's Roots In Angola
The practice continued, however, in the guise
of indentured servitude. The modern Maroon Nation, for example, has its roots in Angola where people were imported to the
island as indentured servants in actual facts they were slaves given another name to avoid being classed as slave traders.
The Maroon Nation remains a culturally distinct part of Jamaican society, and is known for Kumina, which refers to both a
religion and a form of music to form a musical genre known as Pocomanian rhythms. The modern intertwining of Jamaican religion
and music can be traced back to the 1860s when the Pocomanian music and Revival Zion churches drew on African and Christian
traditions to incorporated music into almost every facet of worship.
Later, this trend spread into the Hinduism culture
among the island's numerous Indians (coolies), resulting in what became baccra music. The Rastafarianism influence transformed
the Jamaican music scene in the 1970s, incorporating religious Nyabinghi drumming from groundation worship ceremonies into
popular music. In At the beginning of the 20th Century Junkanoo; a type of folk music more closely associated with The Bahamas,
mixed with the quadrille, a European flavoured dance and work songs were the primary forms of Jamaican music. These forms
of music were soon integrated into one primary music, given the name mento that spread across the island and became the source
for the first recordings of Jamaican music.
The Respected Legends
Of Jamaican Music
The Skinheads of '69
and Jamaican reggae music seem strange bedfellows but they are almost thought of as synonymous with each other these days.
The love affair of the British youth with black based music started a decade before any Dr. Marten boot ever thudded its way
across a record shop floor.
We have to go back to
the mid 1950's to find the roots of this devotion to black music and the birth of the 1969 skinhead movement. In Jamaica,
American R&B, very early soul records, and a slice of Nat 'King' Cole's smooth jazz, were the mainstream sounds played
by the radio and in the dancehalls around that time. As the British black population swelled and inner city clubs started
playing the same records for their immigrant customers, the local white lads also started to appreciate their new neighbours
As early as 1954 The
Duke Vin sound system had been pumping out the latest R&B, Doo-Wop and pre-soul sounds to the West Indian population resident
this side of the Atlantic. The sound system, or mobile discotheque to Europeans, was an integral part of Jamaican life. With
out door and inside dances every night of the weekend and any public holiday it was a national pastime, so it was only natural
that the same entertainment would surface within the Jamaican community in London and eventually every major city in the UK.
The Ska appeared around
1961in Jamaica as the music for the lower urban classes. It blended elements of US R&B with touches of the native Poccomania
religion and jazz in the blasting horn solos of masters like Don Drummond.
By1963 young white Mods
who frequented the black clubs, in places like Soho and Brixton, were dancing to the pulse of the 'Blue Beat', as the Ska
was called, after the label responsible for releasing the majority of the music in the UK. Not only did the Mods champion
black music but they also took some of their styling from the artists and young Jamaicans in general.
The main influence from
Jamaica on the Mods was the Rude Boy or 'Rudie' culture of the young ghetto youths that was hitting the island by1965. Problems
had started in Jamaica after it gained independence in 1962 as a multitude of rural youths and young men flocked to its capital,
Kingston, searching for work. The ghetto dwellers of Western Kingston could see no improvement now the colonial rule had gone
and the massive influx of rural people only turned the heat up as flash points ignited, with violence, injury and death commonplace.
This harsh living produced the dissatisfied ghetto youth who adopted his own stance against this forced way of life - the
Rude Boy. The Rude Boys image was one of being cool & deadly and sharply dressed, and they certainly didn't want to fling
themselves around the dance floor like the white American tourists did when trying to dance to the ska beat. The Rude Boys
wanted a slower tighter rhythm where they could look good while dancing. The music that they called for evolved pulling down
the ska beat to a much slower tempo. The Rudies music was often played and sung by people who came from the same impoverished
background as the ghetto dwellers and understood their needs and plight. Artists such as the Wailers, Alton Ellis, Derrick
Morgan, Desmond Dekker and Prince Buster all produced work either glorifying or commenting on the Rude Boys. There's a great
sleeve shot of a young Rudy by the name of Derrick Morgan wearing a snappy two piece suit, trilby and thick shades on his
Island album 'Forward March' as early as 1963 although the music is decidedly uptempo ska at this time.
The young Jamaicans
this side of the ocean soon picked up on this style as did their white counterparts in the clubs, the Mods. By 1967 the Rude
Boy culture had grown to epidemic proportions in the poor areas of Kingston and a great number of Jamaican singers were commenting
with tunes like Joe White's 'Rudies All Around' and Prince Buster's set of three 'Judge Dread' singles. Many of the songs
were issued in the UK as the Rude Boy style was shaping the Jamaican rhythm further to the cool beat to be known as Rocksteady.
Even in the UK there was comment on the Rudy phenomenon from one Robert Livingstone Thompson, better known as Dandy, on a
Ska Beat single called 'Rudy A Message To You' where he berates the wayward youths to 'stop your messin' around'. A near identical
copy of this single was one of the first 2Tone releases by The Specials in 1979 using the same trombone player who was on
the original, Reco Rodriguez.
The first skinheads, or 'peanuts'
as they were also known, started to appear around 1967 as the Mod movement fractured into the more affluent or art-school
orientated ' trendy mods' and the so called 'hard mods'. The hard mods were becoming dissatisfied with the elitism in the
movement and the expensive tailored fashions that the trendy mods wore. Whilst they, too, would've liked the latest in Saville
Row fashion, they had average jobs and average incomes which precluded them from being at the cutting edge of the group. While
the neat and tidy aspect remained, along with the short serviceable hair, they took to wearing more work orientated clothing
topped off with tough, hardwearing work boots.
Time moved on and the
original Mods of the early 60's grew out of the group while their younger brothers carried forward the new hard mod styles
adapting and changing to make them their own. By late 1968 the skinhead was here. The Mods were all but gone and a new youth
culture was firmly on the rise. The Mod favoured Levi jeans, Ben Sherman shirts and general neatness of person continued with
the early skinheads as did the thick overcoat worn by the immigrant Jamaicans to ward off the hostile British winter. The
overcoat became the beloved Crombie by 1970, although any coat would do at first as long as it was hard wearing and serviceable.
The working class, work wear ethic was very firmly in place and the fashionable names so beloved by the Mods were distinctly
'out', except Levis who continued to vie with Wrangler as the number one jean.
The stereotypical boots
& braces skinhead uniform was formed by the end of 1969, with Dr. Martens boots topping the footwear stakes as the original
Hard Mod work boots were declared an offensive weapon. This was due to them normally coming with steel toecaps which could,
and did, cause considerable damage at football matches and other close combat sports. The only exceptions were for evening
outings where the rough and rugged style was swapped for a more Mod influenced Two-Tone Tonic suit or Levi Sta-Prest trousers
and smart casual shoes such as Frank Wrights fabled tasselled loafers.
Regional fashions were
very much in evidence with one town favouring brown boots and another oxblood. The same applied to the reggae records. Different
clubs favoured different tunes thus creating a big demand in one town while the same record was unsaleable just a few miles
away. Actually getting hold of the prized reggae 45's was quite a task if you weren't near to a major city as most record
retailers didn't hold any stock and everything had to be ordered.
By 1968 not only had
the fashion changed but so had the music, and gone was the romantic, sweeping Rocksteady beat of Duke Reid and in came the
brash, faster sound of the reggay, reggie or reggae.
Horn man Lester Sterling's
'Reggie On Broadway', Stranger Cole's 'Bang A Rang', Lee Perry's Upsetters with 'Return of Django' and, of course, Desmond
Dekker's number one pop chart entry 'Israelites' were staple favourites of the skinhead crowd and younger West Indians as
the decade drew to a close.
1969 through to 1971
were the best chart hitting years for reggae music mainly fuelled by the massive buying power of the skinheads who had adopted
it as their own which caused over twenty records to hit the pop charts. From powerful organ instrumentals like 'Liquidator'
by Harry J's All Star band, featuring Winston Wright on funky hammond, to Dave & Ansil Collins, two yelping Dj pieces
with 'Double Barrel' and 'Monkey Spanner' respectively, the reggae style was moving units. Max Romeo's lewd 'Wet Dream' reputedly
sold 250,000 copies and made number ten in the pop charts with out a single airplay as the BBC had banned it.
Beneath the charts was
a strong flow of new records coming out each week and eagerly snapped up by skinheads even before the West Indians themselves
could grab a copy. There had been UK pressed Jamaican R&B and ska records all through the sixties starting with Melodisc's
Blue Beat label at the end of 1960 and the Starlite imprint run out of the jazz label Esquire, plus the home grown recordings
put out by Sonny Roberts independent Planetone label. Island Records came next, along with Rita and Benny King's R&B Discs,
(Rita and Benny Discs) later to name change to Ska Beat, but two companies really held the marketplace by the end of the decade.
The biggest and responsible
for almost every pop chart hit was Trojan Records working out of north west London. The original Trojan label was part of
a tie up with Lee Gopthal's Beat & Commercial (B&C) distribution company and Island Records owner, white Jamaican,
Chris Blackwell. The pair were already pressing Studio One, Coxsone and Treasure Isle labelled records and selling them via
Gopthals 'Musik City' record stores as well as whole sale out to other West Indian record shops by 1967. Trojan was one of
producer Arthur 'Duke' Reid's original Jamaican imprints and was intended by Island/B&C to use as a nameplate along with
Treasure Isle for his productions they were to release in the UK. Island/B&C issued twelve singles and one rare album
between summer '67 and the beginning of '68 with the now familiar logo and all orange design Trojan label. By the end of 1968
more labels had been added to the roster including Amalgamated for producer Joe Gibbs and Down Town to provide an outlet for
the UK studio work of Dandy Livingstone. As the skinhead boom was starting in late 1968 Lee Gopthal decided to split B&C
away from Island and took all the subsidiary labels with him just as the '600' series Trojan singles were going into production.
Trojan/B&C also started to distribute Graeme Goodalls Doctor Bird Group of labels which included Attack, JJ, Rio and Pyramid
as well as carrying on with Clement 'Coxsone' Dodd's Studio One output.
adding new labels at a speedy rate to keep up with the rapid input of various Jamaican producers whose work was selling by
the cartload to the new white market in the UK. Upsetter for all Lee Perry work, Jackpot for Edward 'Bunny' Lee productions
and Grape for the home grown skinhead material from artists like Freddy Notes and the Rudies, to name but three of more than
twenty. The Trojan empire was growing and producers and artists both sides of the Atlantic were aware of the new markets opening
up and old hands like singer/producers Laurel Aitken and Dandy Livingstone began catering especially for the skinheads. Laurels
Pama releases like the jumping 'Skinhead Train' along with 'Jessie James' were club staples while Dandy's chart entry for
Trojan, 'Reggae In Your Jeggae', kept the skins happy with it's pumping rhythm and chant like chorus.
Not every thing was
rosy for Trojan though, as they had a serious rival in Pama Records with a base in north London now known as Jet Star and
were formed by brothers Harry and Jeff Palmer, in 1967. The original Pama label was set up to release US recorded soul
music but by summer 1968 the demand was such for Jamaican product that the decision was made start licensing and releasing
it. In keeping with Trojan Records, Pama set up a number of labels to cater for the late rock steady and early skinhead
reggae issues from various producers. The first was Nu-Beat with a UK recorded tune, 'Train To Vietnam' by the Rudies closely
followed by other labels such as Unity, Crab and Gas. By early 1969 Pama had almost as many labels as Trojan under their belt
with superb design work on most. 'Punch' with its fist smashing through the pop charts or 'Camel' with the grinning cartoon
animal all carried first class reggae music to the skinhead and West Indian community. The original Pama label had gone through
a colour change with it turning to a tan brown for the rocksteady and reggae releases in 1968, and only reverting to the soul
mauve for US imported tunes or home grown funky things such as The Mohawks with 'The Champ'. Pama had the jump on Trojan to
start with as they had the massive 'Wet Dream' chart single on their subsidiary Unity, but they didn't have either Lee Gopthals
distribution network or, indeed, his ear for adding strings to sweeten the sound. This UK over dubbing aided the singles to
not only sell well to the younger generation but also added enough sweetener to make them accessible for radio play and move
in to the mainstream.
By 1969 Trojan were
way ahead in the pop chart stakes notching up hit after hit with their saccharin sweet string arrangements while Pama had
very healthy sales but couldn't crack the pop charts. Pat Kelly's moving 'How Long' on Pama subsidiary Gas sold enormous quantities
but only through more specialist shops and outlets that didn't file chart returns hence no mainstream recognition.
Long play albums were
a tricky market to crack as singles were the way most Jamaicans had traditionally heard and bought recorded music and one
of a skinheads most prized possessions was his collection of reggae 45s. But Trojan took the plunge and released 'Tighten
Up Volume 1' early in 1969 at the give away price of just under fifteen shillings or 75p. It contained a strong selection
of their previous years hits and originally came on the all orange label design. It was an instant success and Volume 2 appeared
in the autumn of the same year and reached number two in the UK album charts before disappearing three weeks later as budget
price albums were to be disregarded in future weeks chart returns.
Both Pama and Trojan
started to put out compilation album series. 'Club Reggae' and 'Reggae Chart Busters' followed alongside the 'Tighten Up'
series for Trojan often duplicating tracks, while Pama hit out with the 'Straighten Up', 'This is Reggae' and 'Hot Numbers'
string of albums. Pama also released generic round ups of their better labels such as 'Best of Crab' and 'Nu Beats Greatest
Hits' which are chock full of quality skinhead reggae although all the tracks had obviously been out as 45s.
The Trojan album sleeve
art left a little to be desired. Travel shots loaned from BOAC or scantily clad young ladies romping with snakes or in mounds
of Dolly Mixtures were the order of the day, where as early Pama albums carried interesting shots of singers and club scenes
along with sleeve notes - a novelty in the reggae market. Sadly, Pama soon turned to the pretty girl covers too and, if anything,
their shots were more explicit than Trojan.
Single artist albums
were also emerging both from Trojan and Pama. These albums were interesting affairs for the enthusiast as they normally carried
many of the hit singles for that particular performer and sometimes, the odd recording that was actually nothing to do with
him! Also it was quite often the first time the UK buyers had seen a picture of the singer if he hadn't visited these shores
on tour. Desmond Dekker's 'This Is' collection for Trojan did very well in the mainstream due to his chart activity while
Clancy Eccles Dynamites had the 'Fire Corner' LP and Derrick Harriott's Crystalites with 'The Undertaker' album mopped up
any spare money the skinheads had in their pockets. Interestingly, many albums that appeared to be single artist concerns
were actually producer fronted and utilised a pool of musicians who assumed different group identities depending who offered
the fee. Though Harriott and Eccles were accomplished vocalists both were catering for the fashionable skinhead market with
semi-instrumental session albums they had produced with the above releases. There were a great number of superb single artist
albums available such as Keith 'Slim' Smith's sublime Pama release of 'Everybody Needs Love' or 'Says Fire' from skinhead
stalwart Laurel Aitken on Doctor Bird to name two, but the compilation album had the edge in sales and desirability.
A few other labels were
issuing current material such as Melodisc who had retired their Blue Beat label in 1967 as out of date and installed the modern
titled 'Fab' imprint. There was very little difference in the output as Blue Beat, and now Fab, had been predominantly for
issuing Prince Buster's vocals and productions. He had always been abreast of the times with the ska, rocksteady and then
reggae beats so it was business as usual, although Fab never managed to gain a large foothold in the skinhead market. 'Bamboo'
and then slightly later 'Banana' had been set up by Junior Lincoln to deal with the output of Clement 'Coxsone' Dodd's productions
after the demise of the Island/B&C distribution deal of the 'Studio One' and 'Coxsone' imprints. The sound was decidedly
different to the jumping skinhead music coming out of Pama and Trojan, with a much more mellow feel thanks in part to keyboard
ace, Jackie Mittoo, who was the principle arranger. Whilst the music is sublime it didn't really fit the bill for the average
skinhead in 1970 although it was very popular with West Indians.
By the middle of 1973
the skinhead faze had moved through to the short lived smoothie fashion which in turn gave way to the suedehead with longer
hair, loafer shoes and patterned trousers, and with Glam Rock just around the corner there many defectors. The reggae sales
suffered as the skinheads faded away and both Trojan and Pama, by the end of 1972, were releasing a considerable percentage
of weak, watered down, string laden UK recordings which found no favour with the remaining skinheads or the general public.
Both companies were to soon close many of their labels and minimalism operations due to lack of sales. Also the rise of the
'back to Africa' and 'black awareness' lyrics didn't help the cause of reggae in the UK. Most of the white skinheads couldn't
identify with this new form of the music and as they didn't like the slower rootsy beat they deserted it for Bolan and Bowie.
So Reggae music slid back underground,
back into the West Indian communities and waited for the spark of Bob Marley to bring it back to the fore
some years later on in the decade.
was now left to Count Shelly who started to dominate to Reggae market with release from Ranking Dread, Tapper Zukie, Errol
Dunkley, Sugar Minot, John Holt, and Bunny Lea produced Dennis Brown Most of these productions.
eventually moved to USA and started to sell him music from there he distributed Maccabees Records, which were produced by
UK producer Keith Wint. Shelly started off in the Sound System business and was dominating the sound system market. He drew
a very large crowd and could only be match by Lloyd Coxone who also carried a very large crowd from Brixton while shelly controlled
Tottenham and Stokenewingham. Chicken Controlled Clapton and most of the eastside.
Through the Dances Dennis Brown became the most loved singer because he was turning out new releases at least 2 a month.
The Sound Systems used to order records direct from Jamaica but if you had missed any you could pick up from Rita Records
at Stamford Hill on Fridays. There was always a big queue outside. while her boyfriend Barry was selling behind the counter.
'DJP' was a sixteen
year old black West Indian living in Toxtheth, Liverpool in 1970 and recalls, "I used to have to run and hide from the skinheads
as I was sure to get a licking if they caught me".
But to the opposite
'RS' a mixed race teenager from Lambeth, London remembers clearly "black as well as white skinheads all together" and "they
(the skinheads) used to knock at the door to see if my older brother had got any new reggae records".
A series of novels for
the New English Library by Richard Allen did little to help, with his central character, Joe Hawkins, the king skin, only
interested in bovver, beer and birds. 'Skinhead', 'Skinhead Escapes' and it's successors had little story beyond forays with
women and putting the boot in but they sold like hot cakes to the youth market.Reggae music and fashion sense were way beyond
violent Joe and his gang.
With the hindsight of
thirty years the only thing that remains clear is that the press loved the football and racist violence as it made great front
pages and novelists made a living pulling out the grimy side of the movement.
noted in the main feature, a number of producers in the UK saw the massive buying power of the skinheads and aimed their productions
directly at that market.
Of the 'made for the skins' labels 'Joe' certainly has the edge in musical
quality with a strong pumping sound just right for a good moonstomp. The 'Joe' was Joe Mansano, a record shop proprietor from
Brixton, south east London, who produced Reco's 'The Bullet' in 1969. So successful was the record that Trojan offered to
release some of his work.
Mansano certainly had the touch as his productions of Dj Dice
The Boss and the solid instrumental sides sold not only to its target audience of the skinheads but to black reggae buyers.
Sales were so high for Trojan that they collected a sampling of his work on the 'Brixton Cat' album which in turn became a
best seller with the skinheads.
Another producer with his eye on the skinhead market was Hot
Rod sound system owner Lambert Briscoe who set up the Torpedo label with the aid of Equals bassist Eddie Grant.Briscoe went
straight for the jugular with titles like 'Skinheads Don't Fear' and 'Skinhead Moondust' although these titles hide rather
weak and weedy instrumental sides. Briscoe also had the 'Hot Rod' label via Trojan, which put out a few uninspired cash-in
tunes such as 'Skinhead Speaks His Mind', but it soon closed as the skinhead numbers depleted.
Other UK producers of note were Dandy, whose work was always
worth a listen and was responsible for 'Skinheads A Message To You' from Desmond Riley. An interesting record as Des calls
out to the skins to stop the violence. Old hand Laurel Aitken produced some great dancers in the shape of 'Woppie King' and
the cultural 'Heile Sellassie', while Rudie ska man Derrick Morgan kept the nightclubs jumping with the template skin sound
of 'Moon Hop'.
Strangely, the 'made for skins' labels with the exception of
Dandy's 'Down Town' and Mansano's 'Joe' must have sold minute quantities as very few original skins remember them.
Dj's and Toasters
The art of the MC or Toastmaster in Jamaican dancehall was to
liven up the audience, whether by talking, yelping or reciting rhymes over the top of the music, his task was to make the
Early 1960's pioneers such as Sir Lord Comic, Count Machuki
and King Stitt not only shook the crowd live but laid their best moves down on wax. Comic and Machuki had faded by the coming
of the reggae in '69 while Stitt went on to hit the early skins with such shakers as 'Fire Corner' and 'Vigorton 2' for producer
By 1970 the highest profile 'toaster' was, with out doubt, U
Roy, whose debut recording was in 1969 but struck it big the following year by riding on old Duke Reid rocksteady rhythms.
More Dj's came to prominence after U Roy's success and names
like Dennis Alcapone, Sir Harry and Jeff Barnes were popular both sides of the Atlantic and really carried the swing in to
the 1970's. Also a stiff dose of Jamaican Dj chatter, imported by immigrant workers to the 'States, added to the output of
The Last Poets and Gil Scott Heron provided the catalyst for the US rap scene of the mid 70's - but that's another story.
The Prince Lincoln Biography
PRINCE LINCOLN THOMPSON & THE ROYAL RASSES
The Royal Rasses music is for the moral upliftment of all humanity'
Prince Lincoln Thompson 1979
the clock of time ever marches onward the legion of reggae artists who have left us grows steadily larger. Some are acclaimed
geniuses in their lifetimes such as Marley or Tommy McCook but others whose music is easily their equal remain half forgotten
both in life and in death.
One such man has to be Prince Lincoln Thompson who passed
Principle songwriter and voice behind the innovative Royal Rasses (Royal Princes) band, Sax
as he was known, (due to his love of brightly coloured socks or 'sax' in patois), contributed some astounding work to the
reggae scene. Masterpiece songs such as 'Kingston11' and 'Love The Way It Should Be' to name but two of his recordings.
is know of Sax's early life in Jamaica except that he grew up in Kingston's notorious 'west side' shanty town until he surfaced
in the Tartans vocal group around 1967. The group consisted of Lincoln, Devon Russell, Cedric Myton and a floating fourth
member. Scoring heavily both in JA and the UK with tunes such as 'Dance All Night', 'Lonely Heartaches' and 'Let's Have Some
Fun', the group surprisingly split up in '69. This was mainly due to, as Lincoln would put it a few years later, '…lack
of interest between the four of us, - each one had different opinions'.
A dry spell of two years ensued until a young
Pablo Black introduced him to Coxsone Dodd. Liking what he heard, Dodd took him in and in his nine month spell at Studio One
three tracks were recorded. One, a love song 'Daughters of Zion' and two astoundingly deep self examinations 'True Experience'
and 'Live Up To Your Name', both now recognised as the epitome of the cultural side of Studio One, standing alongside the
likes of Burning Spear's majestic 'Door Peeper'.
Dissatisfaction with the music business crept in and Thompson went in to 'virtual hiding'
until 1974 when, after much thought, he decided the only way to earn a living in the reggae runnings was to control your own
The 'God Sent' label was formed with cohorts Cedric Myton, Johnny
Cool (Clinton Hall) and Cap (Keith Peterkin). The latter two were to be his main backing singers through out the Rasses heyday
of the early 80's. It was decided that each man should put in $100 to get the label off the ground, but due to some speculation
by Lincoln, on a horse, his mother's loan to him rapidly decreased!
Eventually the label was up and running but selling
two or three discs a day was all that they could manage with out the distribution of a major producer or label behind them
until, in 1978, they met Mo Claridge. Mo ran Ballistic Records, a London based label tied to US record giant United Artists,
and he signed the Royal Rasses immediately.
A clear vinyl 12" single in picture sleeve was released titled 'Unconventional
People' which entered the reggae singles charts in March '79 and an album, 'Humanity' which shot straight to the number one
slot in the reggae LP chart of May 1979 and gave an instant hit for Ballistic Records.
The LP was a tour de force
of Lincoln Thompson's superb song writing and showcased the soaring tones of his vocals, while the 12" crossed over in to
the soul/disco market and was played widely through out the clubs. Both were well packaged with a picture sleeve on the 12"
and an inner lyric sleeve coming with the album.
Along with more intricate songs such as 'San Salvador' and 'Old Time
Friends' there were two earlier recorded gems, both originally released as 7" singles 'Kingston 11' and 'Love The Way It Should
Be'. These had been hits in JA and for the small UK label Neville King in 1977 each filling the floor at any reggae dance
but they had not escaped the confines of the Jamaican community.
Now they were available to a wider audience and the
Rasses were the premiere reggae group with a tour planned for September '79 to promote a new album 'Experience' which Ballistic
had picked up from Lincoln in JA and scheduled for release on 7th September.
The tour was hit by financial
problems almost immediately and the only plane tickets that were affordable were stand by-seats with Jamaican Independence
Day as the chosen day for the flight. The flights were swamped and in the end just two first class seats could be found, one
for Prince Lincoln and the other for Pablo Black who was musical director and keyboard player with the band. The pair landed
in London the day the tour was to begin at Dingwalls Night Club, a major reggae venue in the 1970s.
Hastily, the Israelites
band were rehearsed to back Lincoln on the first gig with hopes that his remaining band members would arrive before the European
dates planned and the heavily promoted Rainbow, London gig on October 5th. Finally the band arrived on the morning
that the European leg of the tour was due to start after negotiating Hurricane David which closed their stop off point, Miami
Quickly kitted out in warm clothes, as the British autumn was
freezing compared to JA, the tour was underway. nu
After a resounding success through out Europe the full band
returned to London for the eagerly anticipated Rainbow gig.
The instant Lincoln with Cap and Johnny Cool walked on stage
the venue was in uproar. A night of pure uplifting real roots music followed with cuts from the new album, 'Experience', really
hitting home to the buoyant crowd. The band were honed to perfection and with Prince Jammy on the mixing desk there were no
prisoners taken that night.
Based on the vinyl and vocal output over the year the Royal Rasses were voted fourth best
reggae vocal group of '79 in the Black Music poll and 'Humanity' eighth best reggae album of the year. Culture were top of
The renamed Rasses, so as not to cause confusion with Roy Cousins group, The Royals, new album 'Experience'
continued to sell heavily in to 1980 with noted reggae journalist Chris May citing that it was '..one of the best ever sets
in the entire history of reggae..'. Reggae purists were having some problems with a few cuts on the album as Lincoln's style
had always encompassed far more than plain drum and bass reggae rhythms. Using the absolute cream of JA sessioneers he had
created something he tagged 'inter-reg' or reggae with a more international feel. Taking snatches of soul, jazz and funky
basslines then fusing in his own unmistakable song writing and soaring vocals to create a blend of styles, but always with
the heartbeat of the reggae rhythm running through and under each
The next project for the Rasses
was set to be even more controversial as Sax teamed up with white new wave rock musician Joe Jackson to record an album together.
fruits of this labour, 'Natural Wild' was released mid 1980 on United Artists Records.
Sales were slow due to reggae people not being interested as
a white rock man was involved and the rock world having little interest in this strange hybrid. There are (luckily?) only
three Joe Jackson tracks and admittedly to a roots reggae person they are not too special but the remainder of the album was
pure Rasses with the sublime 'My Generation' bearing all the hallmarks of classic Lincoln Thompson work. This was issued as
a 12" and many bought this rather than the LP and, to be blunt, the album bombed.
A stunning album returning to more
traditional roots was recorded at Tuff Gong and Channel One early in 1982 and found release via the German company Juicy Peeple
utilising Lincoln's own God Sent imprint. 'Ride With The Rasses' was simply magical, with Lincoln's almost ethereal vocals
running tales of hardship, greed and envy.
The golden age of reasoning and praises had all but passed and the dance
hall was beckoning to young Jamaica as 'Ride With The Rasses' slipped out to an unknowing public. Hardly any reviews appeared
and few tracks were picked up by the reggae shows which resulted in unjustly poor sales for such an exemplary album.
this time it is believed the Thompson family relocated to Tottenham, North London with Lincoln opening a green grocer's shop.
Nothing was heard of the Royal Rasses until a UK produced album
quietly appeared late in1983.
Recorded at Addis Ababa Studios, London and financed by Target
Records this was unmistakably Prince Lincoln's work with his familiar cultural themes and containing a recut of 'Love The
Way It Should Be'. Presented in a superb gatefold sleeve this was no quick, cheap job but the money invested could hardly
of been recouped judging by the attention the media and reggae public gave to it.
A flyer inside each album offered the chance to win a return
ticket to the caribbean by submitting your winning number from the form. Presumably this ploy was hoped to bring in more sales
for the album. It was never known if any lucky buyer did get to see the Caribbean.e
After the 'Roots Man Blues' set Prince Lincoln slid in to history
as the relentless mechanical Sleng Teng slaughtered all in it's path.
The dance hall craze came and went and the new
resurgence of roots music in the early nineties reactivated many artists who had been making a living via other means.
the roots revival surged on in to the decade rumours appeared that new Prince Lincoln material was around, then Kiss FM's
Joey Jay played a DAT with the unmistakable voice of the Prince on it.
A wait of a few months then around summer '93 a
12" single 'They Don't Know Jah' on UK pressed God Sent appeared. The Royal Rasses or rather Lincoln Thompson was back, using
the new digital rhythms perfectly with a song in the familiar spiritual mould.
A love song appeared on a 12" blank
'Rising In Love' and a piece of production work on one Mello D called 'Jahovia'. A sweet roots song bearing the unmistakable
backing vocals of Sax and released once again on his God Sent label.
Then once again silence. Perhaps the response
to his new music was not as Lincoln hoped or maybe other commitments took precedent. What ever, the voice was still until
early in 1996 when a dub plate started to get airplay called 'Heroes Just The Same' supposedly the taster for a brand new
A CD single was issued of 'Heroes…' with the full album a few months later after some distribution problems
The album, '21st Century', was recorded UK side with some seminal British based session men
and mixed at Tuff Gong JA by the likes of Sylvan Morris. This was to be the most fulfilling and masterful piece of work yet
to come from the mind and heart of Prince Lincoln. Released by the tiny 1-5 South Records once again it was obvious that a
great deal of money and thought went in to the project. Every track was a gem with Lincoln's intricate song writing leading
you in to his thoughts and the wonder of his soaring voice twisting and pulling the words in to unbelievable strands of aural
The ragga world, of course, turned it's back on this 'old timer' but those in the know were bowled over by
the sheer power of the album. There was nothing but praise from critics and public alike for this landmark in reggae music.
Not for almost twenty years had such a powerful message soaked album been recorded. Biting and succinct tracks such as 'Hear
Our Cry', 'Hard Times Come Again' and the title cut all reflected a mature intellectual mind.
It seemed that the Prince's
time had come with this resurgence in creativity and more new music was hoped for as he cut a duet with his old time Tartans
partner Devon Russell who had also relocated to North London.
Sadly Devon succumbed to cancer in June 1997 before a
proposed album of the duo could be recorded.
A year and a half later and Prince Lincoln also was stolen from us by
cancer of the liver.
At the time of writing it is not known what, if any, music was being written or recorded but as
of yet nothing has come to light. All we have is the legacy Prince Lincoln has left us of mesmerising, uplifting, spiritual
music sung in his own unmistakable style.
Perhaps the last word should go to Chris May writing in Black Music magazine
interviews. Tour programme biography. Personal reminiscences.
Original records and sleeves. 'Black Music' and 'Black Echoes' charts.
"Skinhead say Paki can't reggae…….skinhead say Paki don't spend
money…..skinhead a bash dem…." observes Claudette on this 1970 tune over a very uninspired rhythm reminiscent
of a speeded up "Hong Kong Flu".
Commenting on rather than glorifying (I hope) the unpleasant practise of Paki
(Pakistani) bashing that started with the large influx of Asian peoples in to the UK around the time of this record. Sadly
skinheads became notorious for this practise. Many did indulge in it but an equal number were very much against racist attacks
and had coloured members within their ranks.
Musically "Skinheads A Bash Them" is weak, Claudette's voice is nothing to
write home about and it's only saving grace is a nice horn line almost pinched from the Sir JJ's Ethiopians hit.
SHAKE ME WAKE ME - DANDY DOWN TOWN DT402B
This is the original vocal on the rhythm Dandy used again a few numbers along
the label as the monster "Reggae In Your Jeggae" chartbusting single (DT410). Poor Dandy's girl is leaving him and he's so
distraught that he needs a shake to prove he's not dreaming this ghastly situation. Good catchy vocal on a perfect skin rhythm
you all know. An undiscovered gem.
SKINHEADS DON'T FEAR - HOT ROD ALL STARS TORPEDO TOR5
Take a break-neck, tinny, feeble rhythm track that no one wants to voice,
drag in some guy with two fingers and get him to attempt to play some melody lines on a hammond in a particularly inept style
and for all of his fee of £3.50 you've recorded this 'classic'. Then in an attempt to flog the dead horse think up a name
with "skinhead" in the title and - wow - thirty years on you've a mega-dosh lump of vinyl. By far the worst of all the cash-in
skinhead records and the flip is rubbish too!
SKINHEAD REVOLT - JOE THE BOSS JOE JRS9
This is the business! You can rely on Joe Mansano to come up with a heavy
moonstomper. Punching rhythm with a lazy Reco weaving in and out mixing into a great bit of interplay between horn and keyboard.
Just for good measure Dice pops up with an odd shout of "Skinhead revolt" through out the disc. Real skinhead music and worth
TEA HOUSE - THE OPENING REGGAE REG3001
Weird title on this rare Dr Bird offshoot label. Moody mid tempo instrumental
with a very 'far east' style keyboard sound - great eerie feel to this piece of work. I would guess at a Joe Mansano production
as the music resurfaces as the even more oddly titled "Tea House From Emperor Rosko" on Joe with Dice adding a chirpy toast
over the top. Well worth searching out.
SKINHEADS A MESSAGE TO YOU - DESMOND RILEY DOWN TOWN DT450
A good strong Dandy/Rudies rhythm fair pumps along with Des preaching anti violence to the skinheads,
"….wear your boots but don't kick nobody…." he sings and who can fault a record calling for peace. Strange plagiarism
of Buster's "Al Capone" as Des repeats a couple of times "…..don't call me skinhead, my name is John The Baptist…".
Those of you with any biblical knowledge will know that John the Baptist was beheaded so I'm not quite sure what allegory
Mr. Riley is trying to draw on this one. Well worth picking up and if I do not know what parallel skinheads and
John the Baptist.
MISTY IN ROOTS - One of Radio One DJ John Peel's favourite groups of the early 1980s resulting in frequent appearances
on his show - a privilege only normally given to white rock bands.
Two BBC Radio 2 `In Concert` appearances in 1983 and 1985. Invited
to play in Zimbabwe in 1982 in recognition of their support for the liberation of the country. The first reggae band to tour
South Africa, Poland and Russia. Their first long player `Live At The Counter Eurovision 79` spending four months in the `Black
Music` magazine reggae LP chart late in 1980, rising to number 6 in October of that year Voted seventh best reggae band in
the `Black Music` magazine readers poll of 1980. `This is among the top three British reggae albums ever recorded`. Quote
from Chris May reviewing `Live At The Counter Eurovision 79` in `Black Music` magazine November 1980.
If all of this makes you think Misty In Roots were something
special, you would be right.
Recorded at the Cirque Royal, Brussels on March 31 and April
1 1979 `Live At The Counter Eurovision 79` was astounding on two counts. First, tough UK roots reggae was a rare bird. Most
`discriminating` Jamaican music collectors, DJ`s et all viewed British recorded music by the likes of Aswad, Steel Pulse and
Delroy Washington as very much a poor relation of its Caribbean mother, so a whole LP chock full of uncompromising lyrics
fuelled by solid musicianship had them dropping into their Parker Knolls with shock. Then to be able to capture the very essence
of the live performances with all the strength and vibrancy intact was the second miracle.
MIR's strength as performers pre-dated the first hot vinyl offering
by quite a few years.
Forming around 1974 in Southall, Middlesex on the fringe of
greater London, the group heard the reggae sounds of then. It was a time of new ideas, old ideologies rediscovered and a realisation
that coloured skins did not equate second class. Bob Marley and the Wailers were teaching the world of `Natty Dread` while
the Burning Spear resurrected the great leader Marcus Garvey. Countless other voices from the Kingston ghettos were crying
out their messages of life, hope and sufferation. MIR's collective creativity absorbed this new life and tuned it in to their
own style of roots reggae.
MIR soon became known as a no nonsense rasta reggae band rocking
audiences in colleges, open-air concerts and at benefit gigs for various good causes, such as Rock Against Racism. Through
these performances they became well known within the punk circle. Rasta and punk both disenchanted with life, high unemployment
and disillusioned with the destructive government policies of the time became unlikely allies on stage. The same urgency for
change existed in both camps although musically very different, both expressed the same needs. The well known punk band The
Ruts had a release on MIR's label `People Unite` in the early 80s as if to reinforce the ties between the two cultures
As people of colour MIR's roots lay in Africa. The birthplace
of the stolen slave, the motherland whose calling for repatriation Marcus Garvey had heard half a century before reggae music
had existed to bring awareness to the wandering wanderers. The black flame of Rastafari and its new Messiah HIM Emperor Haille
Selassie was alive and exciting the depressed ghetto people with the greatest need of mankind - hope. Hope for a better day,
hope for a better world and hope no more people would die in needless violence in Africa, in Jamaica, in America and in England
too. MIR's music reflected these things. Painting pictures of the hapless slave with his back split open by the wicked whip,
of the homeland of Africa, of the harsh realities of life, and most importantly pointed an accusing finger at wrong doers
the world over. Maybe they didn't have the sunshine of the Caribbean in their hearts but they had the chill of the English
winter to replace it.
This was not a replicant roots reggae group copying their Jamaican
counterparts; this was reality GB wise, as seen, digested and recounted by people experiencing race hatred among the tower
blocks of concrete and the choking, roaring arterial roads that cut through the inner city decay of London
Major record labels began to show an interest in MIR. They were
collecting reggae acts at the time with the hope of finding another pot of gold, as Marley was doing for Island, only to drop
them a few years later when none were found with the Midas touch
MIR preferred to form their own cooperative label, People Unite,
providing a place for all to come, to reason, to create, and to compose. From this melting pot rose one of their first studio
recordings, the double A side 12"single `Richman` / `Salvation. The single and tracks from the `Live At The Counter ` album
gained play on local radio, both pirate and BBC Radio London`s reggae programme `Roots Rockers` hosted by Tony Williams and
a new young presenter, David Rodigan
The gigs alongside white punk bands and the tireless touring
both UK and abroad had paid dividends with a very mixed race audience eagerly awaiting MIR's vinyl out put sending the LP
high into the reggae charts.
Encouraged, work began on a fresh album which arrived in 1981
entitled `Wise and Foolish` containing new material and studio cuts of some of the tracks on `Live At The Counter. A powerful
album dedicated on the inner sleeve by MIR to `..the freedom of Africa and all the oppressed peoples throughout the world'.
After much touring through out England, Europe and farther afield
and two years further down the road `Earth` was slipped out. Recorded at the PAS Recording Studio, West Germany, it made no
difference to the sound as MIR were MIR where-ever they laid their musical hat. Strong songs complimented by burning musicianship
were the order of the day.
In the early 80`s MIR were completely in time with their Jamaican
counterparts as the black awareness and sense of history swept through African descendants the world over. Slowly as the decade
rolled on the musical taste in Jamaica became more self gratifying and materialistic. Loosing its cultural identity to end
up as `dance hall` music, lost in a mire of praises to drink, drugs, guns and sex. Much like their cousins in America who
were experiencing the aggressive `gangsta rapper` phenomenon. Few preachers could be heard above the boastful chatter of the
latest five-minute wonder DJ in JA by the middle of the decade.
In to this in 1985 `Musi O Tunya`, the smoke that thunders,
the Victoria Falls to give it its western name, was released after MIR's return from extensive touring of Africa. Their strongest
set yet, upholding the roots tradition forgotten by many of their Jamaican counterparts, with social comment to the fore and
many praises to the most high and their spiritual motherland in abundance. The whole album was their most fulfilled and complete.
The final chapter in the history of MIR came in 1989 after a
length of silence with the emergence of 'Forward' for the independent Kaz Records which came resplendent in a colourful gatefold
sleeve. With a bright horn section and a sprightly feel MIR had come a long way from the dense murky sound of the late 70's
- but the message was undiluted. Tracks such as 'Hawks On The Street' and 'The Midas Touch' carried on the tales of greed
and injustice just as MIR always had done. Perhaps the public's ears were tunes to other things or maybe MIR's appeal had
diminished due to the battering of Ragga sounds hitting the airwaves as sadly the album did not mark a new beginning but more
of a swan song for the band.
Now as we turn the millennium we can look back over the work
of MIR and see how immense the combined talents of this cooperative group were, producing uplifting, righteous music for all
to hear. And how right they were staying with their roots and not following trends as dance hall music has withered away with
the new growth of 1990s up rightful conscious roots music, right back where MIR were coming from over twenty years ago.
Most people in Jamaican are somewhere along the continuum between speaking
British 'Standard' English and, the local Patois. There is a great deal of linguistic flexibility, depending upon who someone
is speaking with, meaning, a Jamaican would probably use different language when speaking with a policeman or giving an interview
than they would with a friend. The more familiar a Jamaican is with someone the more Afro. Jamaican they might use (Dr. Tuna,
Feb 25, 1998.)
Another problem brought up in the debate about the use of 'Standard'
English versus Patois is, many people believe there is a high rate of illiteracy in Jamaica due to the presence of two languages.
Carolyn Cooper, a professor at the University of the West Indies, Mona, described the causes of widespread illiteracy in Jamaica.
She argued, the language Jamaicans speak, they cannot write-, and the language they write, they cannot speak. The children
are taught to read and write the 'Standard Oxford' English which is basically a foreign tongue to them, causing much pain
and anguish and causing people to give up on reading and writing all together (Pryce, 1997, p.239-40.) This argument has even
been brought up in debates on forming a universal language. Jamaican Patois was used in the argument against a universal language
with the statement, if kids are learning Jamaican Patois at home, they should be taught to express themselves in the dialect
they know (Economist, 1998, 16.)
Despite all the debate surrounding Patois, the international prestige
of Standard English which derives from political and economic factors, has made people everywhere around the world obtain
the major life goal of speaking it; even in countries where English has never traditionally been spoken people are acquiring
this goal. As stated before, in Jamaica, the overwhelming feeling of prestige surrounding English causes people who speak
Creole to be regarded as socially and linguistically inferior. This causes Creole languages to be considered unacceptable
for use for any official or formal purpose, including education, hence the previously mentioned problem of young Creole speaking
children getting frustrated and discouraged by trying to read and write in "Standard" English, which to them is basically
a foreign language (Sebba 1, 1996, p.52.) We have even seen some of this debate on educational uses of language occur in the
U.S. on the issue of Ebonics. Ebonics has been referred to as "Black English" and it is the language of many inner cities
and until now has been thought of as slang'. Ebonics and Jamaican Patios are similar in that they both have the same roots
and parts of the language came out as a result of people being taken from Africa for slavery (citation #3, WWW.) Also, the
primary similarity in the debate on Ebonics and Jamaican Patios is the fact that Standard English is the language that must
be mastered to conduct most businesses and to be successful in any traditional occupation (Pryce, 1997, p.241.)
While Creole languages have never been allowed to be used in education
or for official purposes, they have been used for written purposes. Written Jamaican Creole currently appears in basically
three main forms; (1) poems published as books, booklets, or in magazines, (2) Dub poetry and songs, and (3 ) as dialogue
in novels, short stories, and plays. These forms of writing illustrate how most of what is written in Creole actually has
its origins in spoken language as either oral performances such as dub poetry and in songs. While there is generally no overall
agreement on how to write any of the English lexion Creoles of the Caribbean, most Creole is written using conventions based
on the spelling of Standard English but, with alterations.